Building Resilience through Food Security

Articolo by Dr. Wiwat Salyakamthorn*

“[T]he strengthening of our economic foundation [should begin] by assuring that the majority of our population has enough to live on… Once reasonable progress has been achieved, we should then embark on the next steps…”

His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great

Thailand is world-renowned for her flavorful culinary delights with dishes like Pad Thai and Tom Yum Kung born out of a unique gastronomic history, maintained by the ingenuity of Thais to evolve their dishes in celebration of their culture. But all of this is only possible because of one simple fact – Thailand enjoys an abundance and diversity of agricultural produce.


Sufficiency Economy Philosophy

Source: Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA)


From the steep stepped farmlands of the North to the rain-soaked terrain of the South, agricultural best practices well-suited to each of the country’s topographical feature provide a steady stream of fresh produce that has been woven into the rich tapestry of Thai cuisine. What might be a lesser-known fact is that the country owes much of her agricultural success to the lifelong dedication of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great, in fostering resiliency through advancing food security for the Thai people. King Maha Vajiralongkorn Phra Vajiraklaochaoyuhua has taken the concept further, by ensuring that Thais nationwide continue to enjoy food security through scalable best practices in agriculture.

His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great initiated more than 4,000 development projects for the betterment of the Thai people’s livelihoods, all of which were based firmly in his philosophy of Sufficiency Economy, which advances fundamental principles of Thai culture deeply rooted in Buddhist precepts. The philosophy espouses development in all aspects based on moderation, prudence and self-immunity. It emphasizes living within one’s means and with limited resources, thereby decreasing dependence on externalities and susceptibility to market volatility while increasing one’s control over the means of production and output.


The New Theory Agriculture

Source: Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA)


Development by steps according to the new theory Source: Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA)


At the time of the Philosophy’s conception, Thailand was still an agrarian country but one poised for significant economic development. His Majesty the late King had the foresight and vision that such development could not and should not leave anyone behind. This compassion was then engendered the New Theory, under which the essential principles of the philosophy of sufficiency economy are applied to agriculture. Given the historical context, food security at the individual and the household levels would come to underpin more stable economic growth by lessening the risk of external shocks at the grassroots level. By reaching the furthest first, the New Theory is one of the most concrete examples of the application of the philosophy of Sufficiency Economy as it seeks to foster balanced and sustainable living through the management of land and water conservation, especially for those whose livelihoods were particularly susceptible to impacts of economic crises and natural disasters. This, in turn, allows farmers and small-scale land owners to holistically manage their lands while living harmoniously with nature and within society as they can rely on locally sourced produce for sustenance, even in the face of economic hardship.


The New Theory Farming Practice

Source: Thailand International Cooperation Agency (TICA)


Staying true to His Majesty’s Oath of Accession to “continue, preserve and build upon the royal legacy”, the Khok Nong Na Model expands on the New Theory to maximize both land use and water retention, both on the surface and underground, for agricultural production. The concept essentially calls for the building of a small weir on a plot of land that acts as a reservoir to prevent flooding during rainy season but also retains and acts as a source of water during dry season, both of which have been exacerbated by the adverse effects of climate change.


The key principle of the Khok Nong Na Model is to store sufficient water focused in three main areas: mound, marsh, and rice field.

Source: Surin Provincial Agriculture and Cooperatives Office website


“Khok Nong Na” is an amalgamation of three Thai words that encapsulate key elements of the eponymous concept. First, a small ridge (Khok) is built of soil obtained through swamp digging or other substrate rich in nutrients suitable for growing fruit plants and trees, capable of withstanding local conditions, to generate food and household income. The next important element is a weir (Nong) that runs the length of the plot of land with sufficient depth to store water for agricultural use all year round while providing moisture through the breadth of the land. The last key element is the rice paddy (Na) on which organic rice farming should be practiced with the aim of restoring essential nutrients to the soil so that yields are pesticide-free and safe for human consumption. The overall objective of the Khok Nong Na Model is to ensure food and financial security from the smallest units within society by becoming self-dependent while minimizing susceptibility to externalities. This will in turn translate into food system resilience for the country.

The success of the model is now being scaled up throughout the country by various agencies including the Foreign Ministry’s Thailand International Cooperation Agency and the Community Development Department. Pilot projects and vocational programmes designed to acquaint those keen to explore the application of the Khok Nong Na Model of their own volition, have been implemented nationwide. The Community Lab Model aims to offer a better quality of life through the upskilling and reskilling of recent graduates, whose prospective jobs COVID-19 has taken away, in 330 districts with over 3,300 participants. Similarly, the Household Lab Model has been converting plots of land belonging to almost 6,000 model farmers in more than 300

districts countrywide into Khok Nong Na model lands. Building upon his father’s legacy, His Majesty King Maha Vajiralongkorn Phra Vajiraklaochaoyuhua has guided the Thai people to put into practical application the Khok Nong Na model of agricultural practices to ensure that food system resilience remains one of Thailand’s crowning achievements in the years to come.

Overview of “Khok Nong Na Model” Source: Narathiwat Science Center for education

* * * * *


Dr. Wiwat Salyakamthorn became well known from decades of training farmers on the application of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy to the agricultural sector to promote sustainable productivity and livelihoods.   He has experience working at the Office of the Royal Development Projects Board and in experimenting with the development concept on his own family’s farm in Chon Buri, with great success. He is also a former Minister of Agriculture and Cooperatives and the Founder of the Agri-Nature Foundation which runs community workshops at his farm. In addition, he holds other prominent positions, including President of the World Soil Association, and President of the Institute of Sufficiency Economy.

“We help Thai Red Cross, Thai Red Cross helps us”

 Looking back at how the Royal Family has nurtured the Thai Red Cross Society’s humanitarian mission

Article by Tej Bunnag

Secretary-General of the Thai Red Cross Society

“#BeHumanKind: Believe in the power of kindness” was the theme for this year when we celebrated the Red Cross and Red Crescent Day on 8 May 2022. As we reflect on kindness, we wish also to remind ourselves of how Thailand became a member of the International Red Cross Movement.

                   Since its inception in 1893, the Thai Red Cross Society has pursued a humanitarian mission to provide medical care and social welfare support to those in need. The Society was born from the conflict between Siam and France over the Left Bank of the Mekong River, resulting in a number of injuries and fatalities. At the time, there was no organization to provide assistance or relief for the casualties. Thanphuying Plian Phasakaravongse, a lady of the court, urged Thai women to raise funds and collect items, such as medicines and medical equipments, which could be sent to help the injured soldiers. Lady Plian thought that there should be an organization to care for them and affected civilians in the way that the Red Cross was doing and proposed the idea to Queen Savang Vadhana, who submitted it to His Majesty King Chulalongkorn. The King approved and commended the relief efforts as “a good initiative that was suitable as a national role model.” He granted permission for the establishment of the “Red Council of Siam,” the predecessor to the Thai Red Cross Society, on 26 April 1893. His Majesty also donated personal funds of 80,000 baht to help launch the first fund-raising for the “Red Council of Siam,” together with an official statement declaring that “my life and property are united with Siam.” This statement was closely followed by royal permission for a palace to be used for the construction of a Red Cross Council Hospital in June 1893.

                  Once the conflict between Siam and France came to an end, His Majesty King Chulalongkorn asked one of his sons, Prince Nakornchaisri Suradech, to develop and institutionalise the Red Cross Council of Siam and hospital as a permanent organization to further its humanitarian mission. His Majesty sadly passed away before the project was completed. His Heir, King Vajiravudh, together with his siblings, saw the project through by making donations to the existing Red Cross Council Fund to build a hospital on the King’s private property on Rama IV Road. Prince Nakornchaisri Suradech supervised the construction of this hospital. The King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, as it is known today, continues to be one of the country’s best hospitals with state-of-the-art medical facilities to serve the general public.

Office of the Siam Red Cross Society (1914-1932)
Source: Thai Red Cross Society Website

               When asked about what comes to mind when they hear about the Thai Red Cross Society today, most people would think of it as a charitable humanitarian organization. Starting from medical care for wounded soldiers and civilians during war time, the Thai Red Cross Society has since expanded to include many other missions especially since Her Majesty Queen Sirikit, the Queen Mother, assumed the presidency of the Society in 1956.

               Her Majesty Queen Sirikit is devoted to the humanitarian mission of the Thai Red Cross Society. In May 1979, when tens of thousands of Cambodian refugees fled into Thailand’s Trat province, she rushed to Trat to view the situation firsthand. Then, in her capacity as President of the Thai Red Cross Society, and against the government policy of the time, she established the Khao Lan Thai Red Cross Centre to provide shelter, food, and medical care for the refugees, which became their refuge for many years, until peace returned to Cambodia in 1991.

Khao Lan Thai Red Cross Centre on Trat-Khlong Yai Highway at Km. 48, formerly a facility to assist Cambodian refugees from 1978 - 1986.
Source: Thailand Trip Tour Website

                   In addition to humanitarian assistance for refugees and displaced persons, the Thai Red Cross Society also provides other services to strengthen Thailand’s public healthcare. The government has assigned the Society to be responsible for the National Blood Centre. Thai Red Cross officials and volunteers also pack relief supplies to victims of natural disasters whenever they occur.

                  During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Thai Red Cross Society played an active role in the national vaccination drive. In joining the national vaccination campaign, the society consistently encouraged everyone to get vaccinated as soon as possible, Thai nationals and foreigners alike, including migrant workers and other vulnerable groups in Thailand, in line with the government’s policy of “leaving no one behind.” As of May 2022, the Thai Red Cross Society has administered 1,816,316 doses of COVID-19 vaccines, free of charge, which cover migrant workers, as well as displaced persons on the western border of the country, underscoring Thailand’s long humanitarian tradition.

The Thai Red Cross Society and its network partners provide the proactive COVID–19 vaccination rollout for displaced persons at the Ban Mae La Temporary Shelter, Mae La Sub district, Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province
Source: Thai Red Cross Society Website

In addition to the vaccination drive, Thai Red Cross officials and volunteers open community kitchens in various parts of the country. The aim is to alleviate people’s hardships from the pandemic by setting up temporary kitchens in public areas in various provinces in a continuous effort to distribute aid to as many people as possible.

                  “…The mission of the Thai Red Cross Society is not only to assist people in society who should receive assistance, but is related to assisting people who are in distress in general, whereby work is truly undertaken for humanitarianism. We see it as the duty for all human beings to help their fellow human beings and those who work at the Thai Red Cross Society understand this mission very well…”

                   Words spoken by Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, who has served as the Executive Vice President of the Thai Red Cross Society since 1977 and has continued the Society’s legacy of humanitarianism, especially the sense of duty and compassion towards fellow human beings, and has integrated community service into everyday lives.

                 As the Thai Red Cross Society under the Royal Patronage of His Majesty the King celebrated its 129th anniversary on 26 April 2022, it continues to expand and strengthen its humanitarian operations and to nurture the spirit of community service with faith in the power of kindness in Thai society.

*   *   *   *   *

Dr. Tej Bunnag is the Secretary-General of the Thai Red Cross Society and former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand. A former career diplomat, he served as Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and Ambassador of Thailand at Beijing, Geneva, Paris, and Washington, D.C. He was a Government Scholar and studied history at Cambridge and Oxford University in the UK.


Songkran at the time of the pandemic

After two years of pandemic, Thailand is trying to restore normalcy for its most famous festival, though restrictions continue to hold back recovery.

Songkran is the largest and most famous of Thailand's many traditional festivals. This festive period is also widespread in other Southeast Asian countries and celebrates the beginning of the new year in the Buddhist and Hindu calendar. In particular, the Thai Songkran, which happens to occur in the hottest month of the year, is known not only for the great fights with water pistols, very popular among tourists, but also for the purification ceremonies. Tradition has it that, in addition to the numerous processions, the faithful pay homage to the elderly or their loved ones by washing their hands with water. In addition, it is customary to clean their homes and the statues of Buddha in the temples in such a way as to celebrate rebirth and purification. Every year the celebrations begin on April 13 and normally last for three days, allowing families to gather in their own village for the celebrations. For this reason, every year there is an exodus of workers who move from the capital to their provinces of origin.

The tradition, interrupted due to the lockdown, could be renewed again this year, with the population traveling to visit their families and celebrate the usual rituals. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in fact, any other type of popular celebration had been banned for the past two years to prevent the spread of the virus. Even this year, however, celebrations were severely limited. In fact, even though the number of infections in the week of Songkran was less than 20,000 cases per day and therefore well below the figures we are used to in Italy (with a slightly larger population), the government continues to impose very strict rules in order to contain the pandemic.

To the disappointment of many tourists, spraying with water guns or any kind of water games have been banned in the public areas of the largest cities, including Bangkok, for the third consecutive year. Discos and nightclubs were also closed and the serving of alcohol during the celebrations was prohibited. In the most touristic places of the capital, such as the very popular Khao San Road, it was possible to assist , on one side, to shopkeepers trying to sell water pistols in vain, and on the other side the Thai army intent on announcing with loudspeakers the prohibition to use them.  

The Songkran festival would have also represented an important moment to revamp the economy, given the increase in consumption expected for the celebrations. But this year, due to the increase in the inflation rate in the context of a fragile economic recovery and the maintenance of restrictions to limit contagion, consumption has remained well below pre-pandemic levels. What's more, for a country that thrives on tourism (a sector that, according to the Bank of Thailand, in 2019 accounted for about 11% of GDP and employed about 20% of the workforce), cumbersome entry policies have discouraged entry in the country for many foreign tourists, further dampening the recovery. 

Indeed, despite many neighboring countries easing entry requirements, Thailand maintained onerous rules that required, even for vaccinated tourists, expensive COVID tests upon arrival and quarantines in select hotels. For this reason, some projections regarding bookings in tourist facilities for 2022 show that Thailand has recovered only 25% of pre-pandemic tourists, falling behind the same figure of 72% and 65% for Singapore and the Philippines respectively.

As of May 1, however, an ATK test and minimal insurance coverage will suffice to enter the country, with the hope that a renewed influx of tourists will restore much-needed support to the Covid-overrun economy.

“From the sky, onto the mountains, and into the oceans"

How Thailand’s water management in agriculture can support the global goals

By Sarun Charoensuwan

Deputy Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs - Thailand

In September 2015, all 193 Member States of the United Nations adopted a plan for achieving a better future for all, laying out a path to end extreme poverty, fight inequality, and protect our planet through the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which committed to leave no one behind.

But multiple challenges remain to be tackled before the world can achieve these goals. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), by 2050 the world will need to produce 60 % more food to feed a population of 9.3 billion. This will not be an easy task if climate change continues to put more pressure on the quality and availability of natural resources. For this reason, efficient water management, particularly in agriculture, will be key.

For Thailand, agriculture employs one third of the population, and much of this sector depends on the amount of annual rainfall. Thai farmers’ reliance on seasonal precipitation is reflected in several Thai water-based ceremonies. One notable example is the “Boon Bung Fai” festival during which villagers in the northeastern region propel homemade rockets into the sky to please the Rain God and plea for a favourable amount of rainfall. 

Traditional Boon Bung Fai (Rocket Festival)


It was this very issue that captured the attention of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej The Great soon after his accession to the throne in 1946. His Majesty’s determination to address this issue made agricultural water management an integral part of Thailand’s development policy long before the adoption of the SDGs, as evident in his speech at Chitralada Villa on 17 March 1986 “...It is crucial that there must be water for consumption and water for agriculture because life is there. With water, humans can survive. Without water, humans cannot survive. Without electricity, humans can survive. With electricity but no water, humans cannot survive...”

Many Thais can recall almost-daily news reports about the King’s visits to remote areas of Thailand impacted by droughts or floods in an attempt to find appropriate solutions. Dr. Sumet Tantivejkul, Secretary-General of the Chaipattana Foundation, summarized the framework of King Bhumibol’s water management principles as “From the sky, onto the mountains, and into the oceans”.

From the sky: King Bhumibol established a “Royal Rainmaking Project” to increase water supply both for farming and generating electricity. The project started in 1955 when His Majesty visited dried-up areas in the northeastern provinces and noticed that the weather conditions were cloudy, yet not producing any precipitation. This observation inspired His Majesty to develop and perfect techniques for artificial rainmaking. Over the course of 50 years, “Royal Rainmaking” operations across the country have produced sufficient amount of water for the farmers to harvest without disruption and for hydroelectric dams to function properly.

Weather Modification by Royal Rainmaking Technology 

Credit: Google Patents

Onto the mountains represented the reservoirs and irrigation systems initiated by King Bhumibol to ensure year-round availability of water for agriculture and daily usage. They were also employed to alleviate the severity of floods by releasing runoff of excess water “into the oceans” at the appropriate moments. Pasak Jolasid Dam, Thailand’s largest earth-fill dam, is one of His Majesty’s most widely known initiatives to address flood and drought in Pasak River, one of the main tributaries of the Chao Phraya River that encompasses around 352,000 hectares of farmland, including in Greater Bangkok and its adjacent areas. It was designed to collect and store surplus water from the upper reaches of the river during the rainy season as well as to reduce the likelihood of flooding in the lower parts.

Pasak Jolasid DamPasak Jolasid Dam

Credit: Office of the Royal Development Projects Board website

Pasak Jolasid DamPasak Jolasid Dam

Credit: Public Relations Department website

Besides regulating the flow of water, several royal projects successfully employed modern irrigation techniques in combination with soil and forest rehabilitation. A notable example is Hub Kapong Royal Project Learning Centre in Cha-Am, Petchaburi Province. The project began in 1964 when King Bhumibol witnessed the hardship of local villagers and farmers who lacked capital and land. His Majesty then decided to set aside 1,932 hectares of degraded forest in the area for rehabilitation.  

Hub Kapong Royal Project Learning Centre

Credit: Thailand Sustainable Development Foundation website

The project boasts unique international cooperation with the Government of Israel, the world’s expert in agricultural technologies such as drip irrigation and greenhouse systems which have successfully transformed many parts of Israeli deserts to become arable. Over time, degraded soil in Hub Kapong has been gradually rehabilitated. Nowadays, local farmers can grow a variety of fruits and vegetables that would have been absolutely impossible 50 years ago, such as asparagus, tomatoes, and cantaloupe. The project also provided dwellers with infrastructure, knowledge in community management, and training in the operations of cooperatives for a comprehensive improvement in quality of life.

After immense progress, Hub Kapong continues to develop new sustainable agricultural practices. It adopted King Bhumibol’s “New Theory” model, which divides land into four parts: 30% for storing irrigation water, 30% for growing rice, 30% for growing a mixture of plants, and the remaining 10% for residential and livestock areas. This concept allows households to become self-reliant, and reduces risks from cultivating a single cash crop. Nowadays, the “New Theory” model has been developed into “Khok Nong Na” model, championed by His Majesty King Maha Vajiralongkorn, by incorporating indigenous farming wisdom into the “New Theory” model so that prescribed solutions fit the needs and conditions of each locality.

The key principle of the Khok Nong Na Model is to store sufficient water by focusing on storage of water in three main areas: mound, marsh, and rice field.

Credit: Surin Provincial Agriculture and Cooperatives Office website

Like Hub Kapong, several of King Bhumibol’s royal initiatives on water management were initially conducted as a pilot study in one small area, before expanding to other sites to examine its validity in various environments. To date, the knowledge derived from these projects have been implemented by farmers across Thailand with impressive results, attesting to King Bhumibol’s legacy which continues to be further developed and built upon by His Majesty King Maha Vajiralongkorn. The outcomes of these initiatives and projects may very well offer an answer to those wishing for rainfall, as well as provide a guiding light on the path towards achieving the SDGs.

* * * * *

Mr. Sarun Charoensuwan is a distinguished career diplomat with a wealth of experience in both bilateral and multilateral relations. He has served as the Director-General of three regional departments at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, including the Department of European Affairs, East Asian Affairs, and American and South Pacific Affairs. He was Thailand’s Ambassador to France during 2018 to early 2022 before returning to headquarters as the Deputy Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs responsible for Thailand’s bilateral relations. 

Thailand is building the largest hydro-solar farm in the world

The ambitious goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 47 thousand tons per year is part of the plan to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050

Thailand authorities tout the "world's largest floating hydro-solar farm", which is being built in a reservoir located in the country's northeastern region. Bangkok's commitment to stop using fossil fuels and embark on the path to carbon neutrality begins with the construction of 15 such facilities by 2037. The panels of Sirindhorn Dam, in the province of Ubon Ratchathani, have more than 144,000 solar cells, covering an area equal to 70 football pitches. The installation is a hybrid system that converts sunlight into electricity during the day and generates hydropower at night (about 45MW of electricity). According to the Ministry of Energy, Thailand is still heavily dependent on fossil fuels such as natural gas, which accounts for 55% of the energy used, while renewable sources make up only 11% of the total. The government's emphasis on the Sirindhorn project is also aimed at attracting tourists to the province. A 415m-long "Nature Walkway" shaped like a sunray has been installed to give panoramic views of the reservoir and floating solar cells. "When I learnt that this dam has the world's biggest hydro-solar farm, I knew it's worth seeing with my own eyes," tourist Duangrat Meesit told AFP. However, these clean energy facilities entail several social and environmental costs. Communities living along the banks of the reservoir have complained that the panel system has reduced the number of fish available, thus reducing their income. "We also have to travel longer routes when we're out fishing," said a local resident, "and we can only drive our boats in areas designated by the authorities." In spite of this, project leaders insist that the panels will not affect the livelihoods of local villages. The ambitious goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 47,000 tons per year is part of the plan to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, but the success of such projects calls for a structural renewal in the energy production sector, as well as a stronger focus on all negative factors that will impact the lives of regional communities.

Securing a lifeline for the people

By Dr. Sumet Tantivejkul

Secretary-General of the Chaipattana Foundation

Fresh water is not only essential for life, but key to agricultural production and food security. Crop production, livestock farming, and food processing all need clean water in sufficient quantities. According to the World Bank, about 70 percent of the total water withdrawn worldwide is used to irrigate crops. But the reality of the supply side does not correspond to these needs. Although an astonishing 71 percent of the earth’s surface is covered with water, only 2.5 percent of that is fresh and one percent of that, accessible.

For a predominantly agricultural country like Thailand, therefore, a high premium has always been placed on fresh water. More significantly, a lot of efforts have been invested in how to manage those resources to ensure that the people and the nation have the means to thrive.

It is little wonder therefore, why successive Thai monarchs have consistently expressed a keen interest on the issue. In fact, they have been personally and heavily engaged in advancing different methods – given the varied circumstances – of securing this ‘lifeline’ for their people.

Prior to 1857, it was about managing people to suit the water conditions – either moving people away from or closer to water sources. The conclusion of the Bowring Treaty in 1855 led to demands for rice exports that required enough water for irrigation. Therefore, King Mongkut focused on developing canal systems in the Chao Phraya river delta for both irrigation and transportation. King Chulalongkorn, or Rama V, followed suit by upgrading them into more systematic irrigation and drainage systems, which led to the establishment of the Canals Department in 1902. Under King Vajiravudh, the Canals Department became the Barrages Department in 1914, as it expanded its work to construct the first large-scale barrage across the Pasak River in Ayutthaya, named the Rama VI Barrage.

Photo: Rama VI Barrage/Dam, which began construction in late 1915 and was completed in December 1924. Its function is to supply water to 680,000 Rai of agricultural land in every part of the Rangsit canal area. 



Post 1932, when Thailand became a Constitutional Monarchy, work in all areas was pursued slightly differently as the King no longer had executive power over state administration. This did not necessarily mean that the people’s interests had suddenly changed overnight. Moreover, the work of the monarchs prior to this change spoke for itself. The Thai monarchs had built up a strong bond between the monarchy and the people and fostered a genuine trust in an institution that had for centuries, spared no effort to develop and advance the nation into the future. So the monarchy was able to rally and retain full public support for their public interest endeavours, in a manner that was complementary to the government’s efforts, without being tied to party politics or factional interests.

Indeed, when King Bhumibol acceded to the throne in 1946, Thailand was already a leading rice exporter and rice farmers accounted for around 80 percent of the country’s 17 million people. But by that time, the impact of the perennial paradox of experiencing both drought and flood seasons had become more severe due to excessive and uncontrolled timber logging. For farmers, dealing with dry and cracked land that was unsuitable for growing crops was just as painful as having crops almost ready for cultivation completely submerged under flood water.

When the King and Queen visited the Isan region in 1955, the Northeastern region of Thailand was plagued with drought. Rainfall could only support one single annual rice crop. The King witnessed the problems experienced by the farmers firsthand and it inspired him to devote his attention and energy to achieving effective water resource management for Thai farmers everywhere. He would go on to instill water conservation and awareness in his children.

For the rest of his 70-year reign, the King engaged in countless projects related to water in different aspects. He spent almost 15 years developing a working formula for artificial rain to address drought and improve water resource management. He also invented the patented Chaipattana Aerator, a low-cost mechanical device for treating wastewater.

In the North, the King focused on preserving watershed areas and creating check dams, such as the Mae Kuang Udom Thara Dam in Chiang Mai. In the northeast, the work was concentrated more on setting up a water network system, such as the 740-meter long water delivery system that siphons water from Huai Pai Reservoir in Mukdahan to Lam Payang Reservoir in Kalasin. This project benefited 736 hectares of irrigable area, increased glutinous rice production from 270 kilogrammes per rai to 480 kilogrammes per rai and made year-round farming possible. In the south, projects such as the Bang Nara River Basin Development in Narathiwat effectively addressed the problem of drought, flood, saline, and acidic water.

Having traveled throughout the country, no one understood better than the King that there was never one formula or one solution to address all needs. So he dedicated his time to studying each locality in depth in order to come up with a tailor-made solution for different regions, and placed local residents at the centre of his approach. He considered the social geography of the area, the culture, traditions and lifestyles of the local people. Most importantly, the people had to be included in whatever solution was pursued in order to nurture a sense of ownership. The King was convinced this was the only way to ensure the solution was sustainable and he passed on these lessons to his children.

Since he was Crown Prince, King Maha Vajiralongkorn learned about the importance of water resource management from his late father, and has continued to treasure, preserve and build on the Royal Development Projects initiated by King Bhumibol. He completed several of them, including the construction of 7 reservoirs around Pa Sak Jolasid Dam, as well as expanded the irrigation network to cover more agricultural areas. In Chanthaburi, the King alleviated water problems petitioned by the villagers with the Royally-Initiated Weir Construction Project at Khao Daeng Pattana Village, which increased water supply for 320 hectares of farm land. In 2017, the King also commissioned the Royal Guard Units, related government agencies and teams of volunteers to remove garbage and weeds clogging the canals in various communities, which was essential for flood water drainage in the Bangkok and Metropolitan area.

Photo: Weir at Khao Daeng Pattana Village.



Princess Bajrakitiyabha, the King’s first born, has also taken an interest in complementing water management through her ‘Friends in Need (of “PA”) Volunteers Foundation’ – PA being her nickname. Through this foundation, she set up telemetering systems in 80 watershed areas in 11 provinces, using a comprehensive management approach involving the local community. The new telemetry collects data from real time sensors, processes the information, and provides warnings. This timely warning enables reservoir operators to reduce water levels, people to reinforce their homes, and authorities to be prepared. The Foundation plans to install another 510 telemetering systems across Thailand.

Photo: (from left to right) Automated Telemetry Station in Pongyeang sub-district, Mae Rim District, Chiang Mai Province and interface of ThaiWater mobile-application that has been integrated for general use.

(Source: Matichon)

To this day, the lifeline of the people continues to occupy an important place in the work of the Thai monarchy, as out of 4,877 Royal Development Projects, nearly 70% of them, or 3,386, are water resource development projects.

But the work is far from done. According to the Global Climate Risk Index, Thailand ranks 9th in countries most affected by extreme weather events between 2000 – 2019. Furthermore, research conducted by Thammasat University found that the 6 provinces of Loei, Udon Thani, Sakon Nakorn, Nakhon Phanom, Roi Et and Ubon Ratchathani are at the risk of repeated severe floods, while Khon Kaen, Mukdahan, Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima and Surin are prone to repeated drought. Thailand’s current efforts on preventing floods and drought will not be enough. Every year, drought affects about 9.71 million people and 411,360 hectares of irrigable land, causing about 20.34 million USD of damage. Floods, on the other hand, cause damage to 1.2 million hectares of farmland worth 167 million USD annually, with 4.5 million people in 63 provinces affected.

All sectors in Thailand have to work together and harder on sustainable and effective water resource management, and look into using new technology. Indeed, the King has already commissioned further studies into utilising the full potential of the river basin. Some agencies and academic institutions have already begun looking into how to use water for irrigation more efficiently. Indeed, it is equally important to raise public awareness of the issue, so that every person living in Thailand may use water and water ways sensibly and sustainably, and help to nurture this lifeline for generations to come. 


* * * * * * *


*Dr. Sumet Tantivejkul
Dr. Sumet Tantivejkul is the Secretary-General of the Chaipattana Foundation, which was established by His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej The Great with the vision to provide prompt, timely and necessary responses to problems affecting the Thai people through various development projects. He is often seen in photographs of King Bhumibol as he served the King closely for 18 years at the Office of the Royal Development Projects from 1981 until 1999, when he resigned and continued to serve His Majesty as Secretary-General of the Chaipattana Foundation—where chaipattana means “Victory of Development.” Dr. Sumet is also an adviser to the government’s water management committee and has advised the committee to follow His Majesty’s guidance in understanding both the geographical and social landscape of the country to best respond to the development needs of each locality. chaipattana letteralmente significa “vittoria dello sviluppo”. Il dott. Sumet è anche consigliere del comitato governativo della gestione dell’acqua, e in quanto tale ha suggerito al comitato di seguire la guida di Sua Maestà per comprendere la struttura geografica e sociale del Paese così da rispondere al meglio alle necessità di sviluppo di ciascuna località.

The Grand Tour That Saved a Nation

Thai king Chulalongkorn’s European sojourn as a lesson in soft power

The author is Kitti Wasinondh, Senator and former career diplomat with a distinguished career in many roles at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He served as the Director-General of the Department of ASEAN Affairs and the Department of Information, as well as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St James’s

At this year’s United Nations General Assembly, the world witnessed the unrelenting force of South Korean soft power, as members of the K-Pop sensation BTS performed their megahit “Permission to Dance” at the General Assembly Hall. In spreading the message about the UN Sustainable Development Goals to millions of their fans worldwide, BTS did their part in boosting South Korea’s image as a global leader of sustainability, complementing the country’s role as convener of the Partnering for Green Growth and the Global Goals 2030 (P4G) summits.

“Soft power”, perhaps less tangible than “hard power”, has become an important source and tool of influence for countries seeking to elevate their status in world affairs. Rather than using military force or economic clout to coerce others to give into your wants, it is much less expensive to make yourself liked by others and get them to do as you please. The term, as coined by Joseph Nye, helped explain the triumph of democracy over communism in the late 1980s. At that time, blue jeans, smuggled Bruce Springsteen cassette tapes, and Voice of America broadcasts traversed the Iron Curtain and spread the idea of freedom and democracy.

Today, Thailand performs rather well on the soft power scale, coming in at number 33 out of 100 nations surveyed by Global Soft Power Index 2021. But what is perhaps more remarkable is that this concept of soft power had much earlier applications in Thailand, and offers a very plausible response to the often posed question of why Thailand was able to remain the only country in Southeast Asia that was never colonized.

When Siam faced colonialist pressure that threatened its independence in the nineteenth century, its king had the foresight that improving the national image and winning over influential friends was far more cost-effective in safeguarding the nation’s sovereignty than going to war.  

Indeed, since the early days of his reign, King Chulalongkorn understood that modernization was essential for Siam to escape the onslaught of colonialism. Modernization was carried out not only to improve Siam’s infrastructure, governance, and its people’s quality of life, but also to improve the country’s image and stature. The King employed several western advisors and professionals to assist him in carrying out several impressive projects, from government, education and social reforms, to modernization of transports and telecom, intent on bringing Siam up to standard with “civilized” nations.

Still, the rapid modernization of Siam was not enough to counter the mounting expansionist threats from the European powers. During 1886-1896, Siam had to face a number of crises. In 1893, France sent gunboats up the Chao Phraya River, demanding compensation from Siam for skirmishes that resulted in the death of French troops. Siam painfully ceded substantial territories, east of the Mekong River, paid 3 million francs, and handed over temporary control of the port of Chanthaburi to France as collateral. Three years later in 1896, Britain and France signed the Anglo-French Agreement, essentially making Siam a “buffer” between French and British colonial interests in Southeast Asia. However, the terms of the agreement merely stated that France and Britain would not violate Siam’s sovereignty without the prior consent of the other party. This declaration did not offer a firm guarantee for independence, but rather indicated that France and Britain would not go to war over Siam.

In the following year, King Chulalongkorn embarked on his first historic European sojourn. It was uncustomary for the King to go abroad, so palace officials told the Thai public that the King was traveling to cultivate diplomatic ties and learn about western civilization. However, the European press had a different take on his visit and reported extensively that the King was seeking supports from major European powers to maintain Siam’s sovereignty.

As one of the first Asian monarchs, along with the Ottoman Sultan and the Shah of Persia, to visit all of the important capitals of Europe, King Chulalongkorn and his trip were the subject of much curiosity and fascination. His affable manner and fluency in the English language made him well-respected and admired among the European nobility and aristocracy. European newspapers and magazines followed his movements closely and reported on his every engagement at both official and social events.

The King was not an inexperienced traveller. In his youth, he first travelled abroad at the age of 18 to Singapore and Java in 1871. He later visited India in 1872, where he was given the highest honour and was invited to observe a large-scale military exercise outside of Delhi. His itinerary was closely chronicled in the press of the time. Newspapers even discussed minutiae, such as the excitement of shopkeepers keen on displaying their wares to the King’s entourage.

The flurry of press interest during his visit to India did not go unnoticed. For his first trip to Europe, the King’s visit was carefully and strategically planned to create the right impressions, putting the Thai monarchy on par with European dynasties, and also to send a direct message to those who threatened Siam’s sovereignty.

King Chulalongkorn made sure to call on his powerful and sympathetic friends, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Prussia and Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, well before his visit to France and Britain. He also paid a visit to the elderly European statesman Otto von Bismarck at his residence, which generated much media attention throughout the continent. The King’s trust in his friendly relations with Prussia led to the employment of many Germans in strategic sectors in the modernization of Siam. Among them were Karl Bethge, the first Governor of the State Railway of Thailand and Theodor Collmann, the first inspector of the Post and Telegraph Department of Thailand. Such appointments should have raised eyebrows under the watchful gaze of the British and the French.

Meanwhile, the king’s close personal ties with the Royal House of Russia, where he sent one of his sons, Prince Chakrabongse, to study for eight years, directly helped Siam vis-a-vis French and British colonialist ambitions. The Franco-Russian alliance also worked well in Siam’s favour. After establishing diplomatic ties with Siam during King Chulalongkorn’s visit to St. Petersburg in 1897, Tsar Nicholas II sent one of his best envoys to Bangkok. Alexander Olarovsky, who served as the first Consul-General of Russia to Siam, was instrumental in mending Franco-Siamese relations and persuaded France to return Chanthaburi to Siam. Furthermore, as Russia was at odds with Britain in the Afghan ‘Great Game’, the former also had a direct interest in preventing Siam from falling under Britain’s sphere of influence.

In Europe, King Chulalongkorn soon became widely recognized as one of the most prominent monarchs of the world in his days. Despite the difficult relations that Siam had with Britain and France, King Chulalongkorn took great care to project an image of amity with their heads of state, thereby creating favourable sentiments among the general public. In England, he was hosted at Buckingham Palace and had lunch with Queen Victoria at Osborne House, her private residence on the Isle of Wight. In republican France, he was received with all the pomp and circumstance befitting a visiting European monarch, despite initial doubts that there could be protests staged against the Siamese sovereign.

Although King Chulalongkorn could not win over the powerful colonists with any resources of “hard power”, he showed the world that, with the right combination of diplomatic acumen and effective public communication, he could attract influential European leaders, and even the Western public, to support his cause. On the other hand, the King’s efficacious diplomacy played a pivotal role in securing Thailand’s stature as an independent nation throughout history, and apparently, has brought about a timeless lesson that attests to the value and effectiveness of “soft power”.

Thai Cinema as an instrument of ASEAN soft power

The pandemic has had a dual effect on the film industry in Southeast Asia. While it has caused a freeze in domestic theater screenings and given way to new consumer trends, it has also confirmed the resilience of the more traditional culture of cinema in physical theatres.

Recently, Southeast Asian cinema has made an appearance on international screens, demonstrating how the region's dynamism also finds expression in a vibrant film production. Back in 2017, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the regional organization, Vongthep Arthakaivalvatee, Deputy Secretary General for the ASEAN Sociocultural Community, extolled the role of the film industry as a “vehicle to promote ASEAN awareness and intercultural understanding regionally and internationally”.

In this panorama, Thai cinema stands out. Domestic production amounts to 40-50 films per year and normally represents about one fifth of the total box office of the entire sector, while the remaining market share is occupied by foreign imported films, mostly from the United States. In the past two years, however, the domestic film industry has managed to secure a larger share of the market, benefiting from the delays and complications in the distribution of foreign blockbusters caused by the pandemic. In 2020, the local comedy "Riam, Fighting Angel" (2020) even beat out "Tenet" (2020) and "Mulan" (2020), both U.S. films nominated for the latest Oscars, at the box office.

But it is on international screens that the most significant successes have been recorded. Despite competing with the well-established film industries of Japan and South Korea, Thai productions have recently made their way onto the circuit of the major international festivals, receiving praise from foreign critics and audiences. This summer alone, Thai director Apichatpong Weerasetakul, already a Palme d'Or winner in 2010 with "Uncle Boonmee who can recall his past lives" (2010), won the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival with his latest film "Memoria" (2021), as well as the Grand Prix d’Honneur at the Marseille International Film Festival. The film "One For The Road" (2021), produced by renowned filmmaker Wong Kar-Wai and directed by Baz Poonpiriya from Thailand, was awarded for its "creative vision" at Sundance 2021, the most important international kermesse for independent cinema, while the black-and-white family drama "The Edge of Daybreak" (2021) won a Critics' Award at the International Film Festival in Rotterdam.

However, along with the wave of international attention, the challenges imposed by the pandemic have also intensified. Most of the Thai titles that made their world premieres have not yet been able to debut in their home countries. In April, a third wave of COVID-9 prompted semi-lockdown measures that not only forced the entire industry to shut down, but also triggered significant changes in social and viewing habits. Forced to spend more time in their homes, consumers have shifted significantly toward video streaming services and, as a result, some production companies are rethinking distribution strategies by repurposing them for on-demand platforms.

On the other hand, some professionals in the sector are more reluctant to say goodbye to cinema culture in its more traditional version and are ready to wait for theaters to reopen so that they can continue with in-person screenings. Banjong Pisanthanakun, who directed the Thai-South Korean horror co-production "The Medium" (2021), underlined that the most passionate cinephiles will hardly give up on the irreplaceable atmosphere that only the big screen can give. Therefore, the successes collected during the international events will not be enough to raise the economic fortunes of Thai cinema. According to the chief operating officer of the country’s second largest multiplex chain, Suwannee Chinchiawsharn, "the cinemas will have to work hard to offer not just content, but experience, to give something to the audience that they cannot have at home. We will come back, but even after the pandemic, I believe the battle will continue”. The forthcoming reopenings represent an unmissable opportunity for the authorities of South-East Asia to relaunch the cultural and entertainment sector, in line with the hope to see in the movies a powerful tool to "connect people and promote the ASEAN identity to the world".

Thailand, a land route over the Kra Isthmus

As the idea of constructing the canal is (for now) gradually discarded, new options arise. Here is why.

For centuries, Thailand has dreamed of a passage across the Kra Isthmus, which divides the Malay Peninsula in two, separating the Andaman Sea from the Gulf of Thailand.

The isthmus, in its narrowest part, is only 44 km long and building an east-west route across the isthmus would reduce by about 1,200 km the distance that merchant ships must travel in transporting goods from Asia to the Middle East and Europe. Currently, the only option is to sail south to the Strait of Malacca, the busiest strait in the world, extending the journey by two days. In fact, more than 94,000 ships cross this strait every year, and it is estimated that about a quarter of the goods exchanged worldwide pass through it, including 80% of oil and gas imports of China, Japan, and South Korea.

The idea of ​​digging a canal across the Malay Peninsula has been revived several times over the centuries. In 1677, Narai, the sovereign from the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, asked France to conduct a feasibility study for a canal and Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French diplomat involved in the construction of Suez Canal, personally visited the Kra Isthmus in 1882. More recently, the Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra had taken over this project, but the idea vanished with the 2006 coup. There was also a mounting pressure from China to continue the project and incorporate it into the Belt and Road Initiative given Beijing’s interest in solving the so-called “Malacca Dilemma” and strengthening its political and economic position within the region. Consequently, although the Chinese government refrained from making official claims, China and Thailand signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) canal project in Guangzhou in 2015.

However, despite several proposals and studies on the feasibility of the canal, the idea was gradually discarded given its prohibitive cost (estimated at about 30 billion dollars) and the technical difficulties in connecting the two seas, which differ by several meters in elevation. Moreover, concerns emerged on the possible environmental and political repercussions. More specifically, it should not be underestimated that an infrastructural project of this size involves serious disruptions to local ecosystems, and the consequences that the excavation of the isthmus would produce in the Indo-Pacific dynamics following the opening of a new connection are not yet certain. Finally, the southern part of the proposed country has seen the mounting tension between the Buddhists and Muslims ethnicities, and it is feared that the construction of the Kra Canal could endanger national cohesion, creating a further division, even physical, within the country.

Acknowledging these problems but not giving up the idea of ​​a passage between the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea, the government has decided to change its strategy and what was once the dream of a canal is being transformed into the project of a land bridge. This new proposal, which appears technically and economically more feasible than the previous one, would include the construction of a deep-sea port in the province of Chumphon, on the Gulf of Thailand, and the expansion of the existing port of Ranong, on the Andaman Sea. The two ports would then be connected by a double-track railway and a motorway. According to a report published in January 2021 by the ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute, the construction of the land bridge would cost 60 billion baht (1.85 billion dollars), or just 3% of what the canal would require.

Hence, Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-Ocha and Transport Minister Saksayam Chidchob seem increasingly leaning towards this option. Furthermore, at a time of economic uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the government hopes to be able to use this infrastructure to revive the economy and attract private capitals. Moreover, the project would fit perfectly into the East Economic Corridor (EEC) strategy and studies have been commissioned to also evaluate the possible connection between the new route and the high-speed China-Laos-Thailand, the signature project made possible from the funds allocated in the country under the Belt and Road Initiative.

Therefore, it followed that already in September 2020 the executive ordered a feasibility study of the land bridge and the related complementary infrastructures, to be completed in 2023. The eyes of the whole region, and of China, are on this potential future megaproject, which has been long yearned for, yet remains very delicate given the fragile balance of the Indo-Pacific.

COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout in Thailand is threatening recovery

Lack of vaccines, skepticism, and discontent towards the management of the pandemic are slowing the restart.

Thailand was one of the few countries that managed to keep the coronavirus under control during the first phase of the pandemic, but more contagious variants such as the Delta have caused a surge in new cases and deaths since last April. According to data from Johns Hopkins University, since the beginning of the third wave, the total cases recorded in the country have risen exponentially in less than six months (from just 30,000 at the beginning of April 2021, to more than a million in mid-September), as well as the number of total deaths (from 95 to 15,000 in the same period), putting pressure on the already fragile health system. The situation has plummeted to such an extent that Bangkok has plunged to the 118th place in the Nikkei Asia post-COVID-19 economic recovery index, ahead only of Myanmar, the Philippines and Vietnam. Among the main causes of this new situation of emergency we find the difficulties encountered during the vaccination campaign: according to official government data as of September 20, only 40% of the population received at least one dose of the vaccine, and just 20% both doses.

 According to the government plan, the country would aim to achieve herd immunity by 2021 but given the lack of doses and the growing skepticism of Thai citizens towards the vaccines proposed by the executive, the goal seems to be far off. Currently, the only two vaccines available to most of the population are Astrazeneca and the Chinese Sinovac, towards which Thais remain quite mistrustful. The government has not ordered stocks of mRNA vaccines (such as Pfizer and Moderna), considered by much of the scientific community to be more effective and with fewer side effects. However, the situation could change in the coming months, as private hospitals are autonomously procuring Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and the country itself is about to start human trials of its own first COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, developed by Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok. 

At the start of the pandemic in 2020, the Thai government announced that it had reached an agreement with AstraZeneca to obtain the vaccine and transfer the technology of the Anglo-Swedish company to Siam Bioscience, owned by King Vajiralongkorn, to ensure local production. At the same time, Bangkok has not considered entering contracts with any other pharmaceutical company and has even decided not to be part of the COVAX collective distribution program. However, putting all the eggs in one basket did not prove to be a winning strategy: the doses of AstraZeneca obtained were far fewer than originally planned and, by the time the situation got out of control, it was too late to find other effective vaccines on the market. For this reason, the government was forced to continue the vaccination campaign with the Chinese vaccine Sinovac, available in huge quantities. 

So far AstraZeneca, despite being the priority vaccine according to the national plan, accounts only for about 40% of the total inoculations, while Sinovac, which is relatively less effective against the Delta variant, 60%. The local population itself is very wary of the Chinese vaccine, as popular hashtags on social media and polls conducted by YouGov have shown. The reasons for this skepticism can be found both in recent reports of thousands of cases infected with COVID-19 despite the Sinovac vaccinations, and because there are fears the presence of political interests behind the adoption of the Chinese vaccine (starting from unverified rumors on links between the Thai conglomerate Charoen Pokphand and the vaccine producers). Finally, general dissatisfaction with the difficulties encountered during the vaccination campaign has only aggravated the discontent towards the military-backed government, generating large and continuous demonstrations against the executive, thus breaking a long-lasting truce.

From Poppy to Coffee: Thailand a Model for Alternative Development

The model initiated by the Royal Project Foundation has been recognised by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime as a successful undertaking in sustainably replacing narcotic crops with alternative means to generate income..

By Chutintorn Gongsakdi

Deputy Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand

When their bright red petals fall away, farmers would slit open the egg-shaped seed pods of Papaver somniferum or opium poppy. Milky ‘poppy tear’ would then ooze out from these open wounds, starting the extraction of the crudest form of opium. This method of poppy cultivation can be traced back to at least five millennia ago in the texts of the Sumerians, who called the plant Hul Gil, or the ‘plant of joy’.

Joy is exactly the reason why this plant spread all over the world so quickly. Originally used for pain relief, opium was later introduced as a recreational drug in Europe and Asia. Highly addictive, it dominated international trade and politics in the 19th century. It was only after World War II that its harmful effects were widely acknowledged, and opium suppression became a global agenda. 

In Southeast Asia, opium poppies have been cultivated for centuries. Possibly brought in from southern China, the use of opium was integrated into the culture of indigenous communities such as the Hmong and Karen. Their usage of poppy seeds was in moderation and in their traditional medicine and religious ceremonies, and even had been used as a currency. 

The arrival of migrants and ethnic groups during the Chinese Civil War in the 1940s led to an exponential increase of opium production in the mountains of Thailand, Myanmar and Lao PDR. As the only available cash crop, the new highlanders had little choice but to cultivate poppy to escape poverty, despite it did not receive high returns. The network of illegal trade in the Golden Triangle, an area where the borders of the three countries meet, peaked during the 1960s with an estimated 145 tons of opium produced in Thailand annually. 

The Thai government banned opium in 1958. However, insufficient resources and the lack of understanding among the highland peoples resulted in an unsuccessful campaign to restrict poppy cultivation. As the locals resented the government’s efforts to resettle them in the lowlands, Thai officials started to look for an alternative method to reduce opium production. 

In 1969, while visiting Chiang Mai province, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej The Great learned that some poppy growers could earn a comparable amount of money from selling local peaches. That was when he developed the idea that growing an improved peach variety could possibly generate more income than opium poppy, minus the risk of being involved in criminal activities, and therefore, opium cultivation could organically wither away from existence.

This concept of crop substitution and genetic improvement was swiftly translated into actions that have created an environment of human security and a sustainable livelihood for villagers -a holistic approach to security. The concept would eventually be called alternative development model, whereby the people are empowered to pursue the development path of their choice rather than being forced to surrender to prevailing conditions. The King deployed his knowledge on geography and botany to sponsor the research on alternative crops. He instituted the ‘Royal Project,’ a private charitable organisation to support alternative development in Northern Thailand. The Royal Project ran its first training programme with the highlanders in 1970, while the King set up development stations in the area. 

In tandem with the Royal Project, members of the Royal Family supported several other initiatives to address illiteracy, poverty and public health in the remote mountains. Many of them were frequent visitors to the villages to organise medical check-ups through the Princess Mother’s Medical Volunteer Foundation, and to provide assistance to schools in need. All these concerted efforts took decades of perseverance to bear fruit. However the yield, as proven today, is worth the wait. 

Since the beginning, the Royal Project worked with the Thai government and international organisations to conduct research and development, and to provide seeds, fertilizer, training, and supporting infrastructure. In 1971, the Royal Project and the Thai Narcotics Control Board partnered with the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC) to establish the Crop Replacement and Community Development Project. Since then, the Royal Project and relevant agencies have introduced more than 150 new crops to poppy growers, including arabica coffee, tea, cabbage, apple, and decorative flowers.   

Nevertheless, poppy eradication did not begin until 1985. The officials recognised that radical measures could lead to counterproductive results. They waited until the projects could generate sufficient income for poppy farmers, and eradication was mostly negotiated to ensure a sustainable outcome. As a result, poppy cultivation in Thailand fell by 97 percent from 1985 to 2015 and has never relapsed. 

Today, the Royal Project is a public foundation with 39 development centers and research stations. Under the patronage of His Majesty King Maha Vajiralongkorn, the foundation continues to expand its work with the opening of Ler Tor Development Center in Tak province in 2016, which is assisting more than 300 Karen farmers. The Royal Project products are currently processed and distributed in supermarkets under the brand Doi Kham. Some products, such as dried fruit and juice, are available in Japan, China and Russia.

Coffee beans of Doi Tung, another brand of alternative development products from Mae Fah Luang Foundation, created by Princess Srinagarindra, the Princess Mother in Chiang Rai province, has been selected by Japan Airlines and Japanese retailer Muji for their catering service.

The works of the Royal Project were realised through synchronised efforts of all key players. For instance, the Thai government provided human capital development by extending healthcare services and developing schools in former opium-producing villages, as well as the provision of Thai citizenship. The highland communities now have access to rights as a Thai citizen, such as the right to own land, non-farming work and qualifications to apply for bank loans. This would not have been possible had it not been for the monarchy’s subtle but effective support to steer collaboration that has bound all stakeholders together, from policy makers to villagers, towards the same direction. Considering the local villagers’ skepticism of government officials at the time, the face of the institution was the only one that was received with genuine respect and trust by all parties. 

The Alternative Development model or AD initiated by the Royal Project Foundation has been recognised by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime as a uniquely successful undertaking in sustainably replacing narcotic crops with alternative means to generate income. Not only did the Royal Project contribute to the security- building process by reducing illicit crop and crimes, it also succeeded in bolstering economic, food, and environmental security for the ethnic communities who were living on the edge of poverty. It has since gone the extra mile to collaborate with UN agencies by introducing similar programmes in countries such as Lao PDR, Myanmar, Colombia, Peru and even Afghanistan, to name a few. Aiming to be the learning institute for sustainable development, the Royal Project Foundation continues to empower and dignify the livelihoods of local communities in Thailand and beyond.

Editorial | Thailand, Made in Italy relaunched

Editorial by Lorenzo Galanti, Ambassador of Italy to Bangkok

Thailand and most of ASEAN countries are facing an epidemic wave mainly due to the Covid-19 Delta variant with the inevitable measures that limit economic activity and mobility, with a negative impact on growth prospects for 2021. At the same time, the governments are trying to accelerate the vaccine supply. Thailand, which has a very high capacity of inoculation but does not participate in COVAX, is multiplying sources of supply and diversifying vaccines, originally confined to Sinovac and AstraZeneca. It aims to reopen at least partially the Kingdom by October and to vaccinate 70% of the population (about 50 million people) by December.

Meanwhile, the growth estimates of the Thai economy have been revised downwards by the Bank of Thailand which now predicts a modest 0.7% for 2021 and a rebound of 3.7% next year. The recovery of tourism will not be rapid, due to the restrictions on international travel still in force in the main countries of provenance such as China. It is important to increase efforts to attract investments in innovative sectors, thanks to IT infrastructure and 5G. The Bank of Thailand is developing a prototype of digital currency to facilitate transaction and consumption, the Retail Central Bank Digital Currency. On the consumption side, the market has moved a lot online, on digital platforms.

The ICE office Agency in Bangkok, in collaboration with the Italian Embassy, has launched a program with Lazada Thailand, the e-commerce platform controlled by Alibaba, for a virtual pavilion of authentic Italian products. The initiative starts these days on LazMall (the portal of quality brands) and in a first phase is dedicated to food, but it will expand to the non-food sector. At the same time, an offline campaign is being promoted by ICE Agency at the stores of Central Department stores (the main Thai retail group that controls La Rinascente in Italy) to promote Italian products, food and non-food, on the shelves. A first relaxation of the lockdown in Bangkok decided these days will stimulate a recovery in consumption. The first half of the year saw an increase of Thai exports thanks to the traction of the main markets (China and the US) and the weakening of the currency, Thai Baht, but also an increase in imports, which benefited the Italian export that has returned to the levels of 2018.